How New Government is Formed in Pakistan?

Pakistan is a democratic country that follows Parliamentary System of Government. Formation of a government in Pakistan after general elections is a critical process that plays a pivotal role in shaping the country’s political landscape. The journey from the polling booths to the establishment of a functional government involves a series of steps, negotiations and constitutional obligations. This article will provide an overview of the post-election process in Pakistan, shedding light on the key stages involved in the formation of a government.

Election 2024 and Government of Pakistan
Source: Election Commission of Pakistan

General Elections

The first step in the formation of a government in Pakistan is the conduct of general elections. These elections are held every five years in which voters across the country cast their ballots to elect representatives for the National Assembly and Provincial Assemblies. Political parties contesting these elections present their manifestos and voters choose candidates based on their vision, policies and promises. Candidates participating in general elections contest on general seats of National Assembly (266) as well as Provincial Assemblies (Punjab 297, Sindh 130, KPK 115, Balochistan 51).

 AssembliesGeneral SeatsWomen MinoritiesTotal Seats
National2666010336
Balochistan   5111 365
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa11526 4145
Punjab   29766 8371
Sindh   13029 9168

see also Explaining Electoral System of Pakistan: A Comprehensive Overview

Election Results and Seat Allocation

After the conduct of general elections Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP) announces the results. The party or coalition that secures the majority of seats in the National Assembly forms the federal government and similar processes occur at the provincial level for the formation of regional governments. Reserved seats of Women and Minorities are allocated to political parties according to the proportion of winning candidates on general seats. The allocation of seats is crucial in determining the party or coalition’s strength and bargaining power in the subsequent negotiations.

 AssembliesGeneral SeatsReserved SeatsTotal SeatsSeats needed to Form Govt
National26670336169
Balochistan   51 146533
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa115 3014573
Punjab   297 74371186
Sindh   130 3816885

Coalition Building and Alliances

In the event that no single party secures an absolute majority in the National Assembly, coalition building becomes a crucial aspect of government formation. Political parties engage in negotiations and form alliances to secure the required number of seats to command a majority. These alliances are often based on shared ideologies, policy goals or regional considerations. Power is negotiated and distributed among the allies basis on the strengths of political parties in assemblies.

Prime Ministerial Nomination

The leader of the party or coalition that holds the majority of seats in the National Assembly is invited to form the government. This individual is then nominated as the Prime Minister. Before vote of confidence for Prime Minister, elected members of National Assembly vote to elect nominated candidates as Speaker and Deputy Speaker of National Assembly. Once Speaker and Deputy speakers are elected, The Prime Minister-designate seeks a vote of confidence from the National Assembly to officially assume office. If successful, the process moves forward and the government starts functioning.

Cabinet Formation

With the Prime Minister in place, the next step is the formation of federal cabinet. Prime Minister selects ministers from among elected MNAs and Senators, ensuring a mix of expertise and representation from various regions and communities. The cabinet is responsible for policymaking, administration and the execution of government functions.

Provincial Governments

Simultaneously, similar processes unfold at the provincial level with Chief Ministers nominated based on the majority party or coalition in each provincial assembly through vote of confidence. Provincial cabinets are then formed, mirroring the structure of the federal cabinet.

Conclusion

The formation of a government in Pakistan is a complex but essential process that follows the democratic principles according to constitution of Pakistan. Through the conduct of general elections, seat are allocation and coalition are build to establish the federal and provincial governments. The government then functions with the formation of cabinets that perform policy making, Administration and execution of national affairs. This process ensures the representation of diverse voices and perspectives in the governance of Pakistan, fostering a system that is accountable, transparent and responsive to the needs of its people.

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