What is Mother Cell?

Meaning of Mother Cell

Progenitor cell is a cell present in the adult, embryo, or fetus, derived from the pluripotent stem cells of the specific tissue in which it participates in development. It has the ability to proliferate and maintain tissue when it needs cell renewal.

However, it can only produce cells from the tissue in which it is found, that is, they have greater cellular specialization than the stem cells that derive it.

Progenitor cells are often referred to as stem cells, as both concepts are still in development.

However, it is necessary to consider the difference between the levels of specialization and the ability to generate a greater number of cell lines of both types.

Not all tissues have progenitor cells after their embryonic development, as in the case of striated muscle tissue. However, other tissues have these cells in their renewal collection, such as hemocytopoietic tissue. Given this, see some examples of progenitor cells.

Blood Stem Cells

Stem cells are present in red bone marrow. When these cells divide, they give rise to two daughter cells, one of which will continue to develop and the other remains in the bone marrow as a reserve stem cell, which makes its stock practically inexhaustible.

The daughter cell that will continue its development is called a blood progenitor cell and will have limited pluripotency, as it can only give rise to blood cells.

In their course of division they will give rise to two other lines: lymphoid cell lines, which will form lymphocytes, and myeloid cell lines, which will give rise to erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes and platelets.

In turn, these cells are also progenitors, that is, lymphoid progenitor cells and myeloid progenitor cells.

But they have what can be called uni or bi power, different from the originals.

It is important to mention that, contrary to what was initially believed, bone marrow stem cells have a cell differentiation capacity that is not limited to blood cells. Initially, research in this area was restricted to the use of embryonic stem cells, but is gradually moving towards the use of those obtained from an adult individual.

Therefore, there is a difference in this tissue between stem cells, which produce several cell lines, and progenitors, which produce a small number of lines.

Endothelial Progenitor Cells

Endothelial progenitor cells are capable of forming endothelial cells, thus they are important in the repair of blood vessels and the formation of new vessels. They have the ability to both proliferate and migrate and differentiate into endothelial cells in different regions of the body.

In addition, they originate from various cells, such as hemangioblasts, nonhematopoietic precursors, monocytes, or tissue-resident stem cells.

These endothelial precursor cells are circulating in the blood and will settle in vessels in need of repair or pre-existing endothelium, in addition to presenting phenotypes of hematopoietic and mature endothelial cells.

Neural Progenitor Cells

Neural progenitor cells, also called neuroprogenitors, are derived from neural stem cells. Both are responsible for the development of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. They participate in the formation and maturation of the neural system in the fatal phase and after birth.

In addition, neuroprogenitor cells have been observed in adulthood, in some areas of the central nervous system, such as the cerebellum, in the subventricular zone, located between the lateral ventricle and the striatal parenchyma, and in the subgranular layer of the region of the ventricle. dentate gyrus in the hippocampus.

In adults, they are believed to be responsible for maintaining the physiological integrity and homeostasis of the neural system, since this system does not have a high renewal capacity.

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