Meaning of Learning
Learning is a phenomenon or method related to the act or effect of learning . It establishes links between certain stimuli and equivalent responses, which causes a greater adaptation of a living being to its environment.
Being a phenomenon that is part of pedagogy , learning is a modification of the individual’s behavior based on experience.
School learning is distinguished by its systematic and intentional nature and the organization of the activities (stimuli) that trigger it, activities that conform to a framework of purposes and requirements determined by the school institution.
Psychological research on learning and the theories that emerged from it had a strong impact on pedagogy, contributing to the decline of traditional teaching. The central point of the teaching-learning process has become the student’s activity as an agent of their learning, ceasing to be the passive agent of teaching taught by the teacher.
Learning disabilities result both from school malfunctions and from psychological or sociocultural factors. Sensory and physical disabilities (visual, hearing, motor) and physiological disorders give rise to specific types of learning disabilities .
In the field of ethology , learning is the fixation in memory of environmental impressions . It is based on the modification of the mechanisms of the central nervous system that subsequently influence behavior patterns.
The possibility or willingness to learn depends on the level of development of these mechanisms and is determined by the number of neurons available. Almost all animals can learn .
In animals with small brains, most neurons are used to establish inherited automatic circuits and few are available for learning.
On the other hand, in large animals, the number of neurons is sufficient to allow the formation of new circuits, which allows them to learn.
Types of Learning
Jean Piaget has made a distinction between learning and development, stating that many people confuse the two concepts. Development is related not only to physical development, but also to nervous system and mental functions, and to embryogenesis and knowledge structures.
The concept of learning is simpler because it occurs through an intermediary, being a process limited to a simpler structure than development.
It is an important concept in the learning theory presented by David Ausubel. According to the American educational psychologist, the significant implies that the new content learned by the student is organized and forms a hierarchy of concepts.
Organizational learning is the preparation absorbed by an organization, that is, it is the acquisition of knowledge that allows the company to create practices that will help it achieve the desired results.
Knowledge, values and study skills can occur within or outside the context of the organization, directly or indirectly, and contribute to the success of the organization.
Motor learning occurs when certain cognitive processes are linked to movement practice. That causes a constant change in the motor behavior of a particular individual.