With the acronym DNA is known technically and popularly to deoxyribonucleic acid. This molecule is contained in the nucleus of the vast majority of cells, as well as in some organelles such as mitochondria (in animals) and chloroplasts (in plants).
In very simplified terms, DNA is a molecule that contains the information that makes living things . Its “units” are called bases and are made up of four main molecules: adenosine, thymidine, guanidine, and cytosine. With specific combinations of these four units, all the specific proteins of each life form are encoded in the DNA. The DNA in turn is “packaged” to give rise to chromosomes .
Depending on the complexity of each living organism, the DNA molecule will be larger and contain more information. For example, bacteria have a single chromosome with a few base sequences, but that is enough for their survival. In contrast, several million combinations are described in human DNA , stored in 46 chromosomes.
It is emphasized that all members of a species share most of the information present in DNA. Thus, the DNA of all dog specimens around the world is similar in more than 99% of its content. The differences in that subtle 1% are enough to explain not only the distinctions between the different races, but also the differences between each individual animal.
Therefore, the definitive characteristics of each DNA molecule are actually different for each living organism on Earth. This is attributed to the fact that, during sexual reproduction , the union of animal sperm or plant pollen (male gametes) with the ovum (female gamete) allows the combination of the DNA of two different individuals, which will result in a completely new organism. and different from the beginning, with its own genetic information.
The great biological importance of DNA does not overshadow its other great utility: expert and legal. The fact of the total individuality of DNA makes it a tool of great interest to identify the authors of various crimes, since the DNA traces present in the scenes where they were committed allow the detection of the genetic pattern of each person.