Meaning of Genetic Analysis
Genetic analysis is the general process of study and research in fields of science involving genetic engineering and molecular biology. There are a number of applications that are developed from this research and these are also considered part of the process.
The base system of analysis revolves around general genetics. Basic studies include the identification of genes and hereditary disorders. This research has been carried out for centuries both on a large-scale physical observation and on a more microscopic scale.
Much of the research that laid the foundation for genetic analysis began in prehistoric times. Early humans discovered that they could practice selective breeding to improve crops and animals. They also identified traits inherited in humans that were eliminated over the years.
Modern genetic analysis began in the mid-1800s with research by Gregor Mendel. Lacking a basic understanding of heredity, Mendel looked at various organisms and found that traits were inherited from parents and that those traits could vary between children.
Later, it was discovered that the units within each cell are responsible for these traits. These units are called genes. Each gene is defined by a series of amino acids that create proteins responsible for genetic traits.
Certain advances have been made in the field of genetics and molecular biology through the process of genetic analysis. One of the most frequent advances during the late 20th and early 21st centuries is a greater understanding of the link between cancer and genetics.
This research has been able to identify the concepts of genetic mutations, fusion genes and changes in DNA copy numbers.
DNA sequencing is essential for genetic analysis applications. This process is used to determine the order of nucleotide bases.
Each DNA molecule is made of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, which determine what function the genes will have. This was first discovered during the 1970s.
A variety of other types of research associated with genetic analysis. Cytogenetics, the study of chromosomes and their function within cells, helps identify abnormalities. The polymerase chain reaction studies the amplification of DNA.
Karyotyping uses a chromosome study system to identify genetic abnormalities and evolutionary changes in the past.
Many of these applications have given rise to new types of science using the foundations of genetic analysis. Reverse genetics uses the methods to determine what is missing from a genetic code or what can be added to change that code.
Genetic linkage studies look at the spatial arrangements of genes and chromosomes. Studies have also been conducted to determine the legal and social effects of increased genetic testing.