Meaning of Eukaryotic Cell
The word eukaryote means true nucleus and that is exactly what can be seen in these structures. Eukaryotic cells have compartmentalized genetic material, that is, it is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear membrane that separates the cytoplasm.
This class of cells is a much more complex and generally larger model than its predecessor, the prokaryotes. They are cells with several membranous and non-membranous organelles structured in such a way that each organelle performs a certain function.
Thus, in analogy with an industry or company, eukaryotic cells have several well-structured and separate departments.
Okay, but how did these cells come about? In short, eukaryotes are believed to be derived from prokaryotes through endosymbiosis.
This means the internalization of a cell into another cell that began to perform a certain function.
Because this relationship has provided some adaptive advantages for both, it has persisted throughout evolutionary history and has been inherited from generation to generation.
In addition, what must also have happened is the invagination of the plasma membrane, forming a pocket that later took on some function, such as intracellular digestion.
Eukaryotic cells belong to individuals from different groups, such as fungi, plants, and animals. They can be of many types, such as muscle cells, the nervous system, reproductive cells, among many others.
The structural organization of organisms is also quite diverse, they can be unicellular, like protozoa, and also multicellular, like animals.
In the case of multicellular beings, the same cell gives rise to many others by cell division.
These initials, without any differentiation, are called totipotent cells. Then, a genetically determined process takes place, in which each of them assumes a certain configuration and internal form, so that it can perform some function in the organism.
This process is known as cell differentiation, and that is why the existence of such complex and organized organisms is possible.
The internal cellular configuration of eukaryotes, like that of most cells, is highly variable depending on the type or function of the cell. Another factor that influences the amount and which organelles will be present in the cells is which group the organism belongs to.
However, in general, immersed in the cytoplasm, between the plasma membrane and the library, it is quite common to have mitochondria, the Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and, in photosynthesizers, chloroplasts.
Anyway, eukaryotic cells are complex structures and with the presence of various biological membranes, they have different internal configurations and form individuals of different groups.
In this sense, organisms belonging to the animal, plant, fungal and protist kingdoms are composed of this class of cells.