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What is Electric Charge?

Meaning of Electric Charge

Electric charge is a physical concept that determines the electromagnetic interactions of electrified bodies.

Thus, from the friction between the bodies, the phenomenon called ” electrification ” is produced, so that all bodies have the property of attracting or repelling each other.

Therefore the types of electric charges are, charges of the same nature (positive and positive, negative and negative) repel each other, while charges of opposite signs (positive and negative) attract each other.

This is because electrical charges are made up of elementary particles that make up atoms, known as protons (positive charge), electrons (negative charge), and neutrons (neutral charge).

In the International System, the unit of electric charge is the Coulomb (C) named after the French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806) for his contributions to the study of electricity.

 

Point Load

The so-called “ point electric charges ” correspond to electrified bodies whose dimensions and mass are insignificant compared to the distances that separate them from other electrified bodies.

Atoms

Atoms are fundamental units of matter, made up of a positively charged nucleus called protons , and neutrons , neutrally charged particles.

The atomic nucleus, which carries almost all the mass (99.9%) of the atom, is surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons located in the electrosphere.

Protons (p+)

Protons are electrically charged particles that, together with neutrons, form the nucleus of atoms.

They have the same value as the charge on electrons, so protons and electrons tend to attract each other electrically . The value of the charge of protons and electrons is called the amount of elementary charge (e) and has the value of e = 1.6 .10-19 C.

Electrons (e-)

Electrons are small negatively charged particles of negligible mass (approximately 1840 times smaller than the mass of the atomic nucleus).

Unlike protons and neutrons, electrons are found in the electrosphere , which surrounds the atomic nucleus by electromagnetic force.

Neutrons (n0)

Neutrons are neutrally charged particles , that is, they have no charge; Along with protons, they make up the nucleus of atoms.

It is of great importance in the nucleus of atoms. It provides stability to the atomic nucleus, since the nuclear force causes it to be attracted by electrons and protons.

Electric field

The electric field is a place where there is a strong concentration of electric force , it is a type of force that electric charges generate around them.

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