DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid which are the molecules of an organic compound whose molecules contain the genetic instructions that coordinate the development and functioning of all living organisms and some viruses.
The main role of DNA is to store the information necessary for the construction of proteins and RNA .
The DNA is found in the nucleus of the cells of an organism , inside the chromosomes, except in the blood cells (red blood cells), which do not have a nucleus.
The DNA segments that contain the genetic information are called genes, the rest of the sequence has structural importance or is involved in the regulation of the use of genetic information.
discovery of DNA
The structure of the DNA molecule was discovered jointly by the American James Watson and the British Francis Crick in 1953. Nine years later they were awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine.
With the exception of identical twins, the DNA of each individual is exclusive , each human being has two forms of each gene, one that he receives from the mother and the other that he receives from the father. Although most genes are the same between people, some DNA sequences vary from person to person.
To find out the paternity of a child, a DNA test is done , which will confirm its genetic origin.
There is also mitochondrial DNA, which is not found in the nucleus of cells, but in the mitochondria . The mitochondrial genetic material is inherited exclusively from the mother .
Many times the mitochondrial DNA allows information about a being to be obtained, even if they are in an advanced state of degradation.