What is Criminology?

Meaning of Criminology

Criminology is the name given to a branch of knowledge , of an empirical nature (that is, built through perceptions and experiences) that focuses on the criminal action , on its perpetrator, on the respective victim and on the possible ways to combat criminality. referred criminal act.

It has an interdisciplinary feature (it communicates with other areas of study to form the structure of its subject).

Therefore, much of its content is borrowed from different branches , namely biology, psychopathology, sociology , politics, among others.

Its origin dates back to the 18th century, with the advent of what was conventionally called the ” Classical School ” of criminology, through the work of Cesare Beccaria (Dei Delitti and delle Pene) and other philosophers, inspired mainly by Rousseau’s doctrine. , affirmed that the origin of the crime lies in society and its values ​​and deviations.

Later, in the area of ​​criminology , the second line of thought of this science would appear, known as the ” Positivist School “, highlighting the Italian current, largely due to the well-known studies of the Italian Cesare Lombroso, doctor and scientist . , surgeon and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology .

At the root of his thinking are concepts borrowed from psychiatry, social Darwinism, and Eugenia.

In short, it was about eliminating the criminal gene, and then the crime society would be liberated, in a simple link between cause and effect: by eliminating the cause (the crime-prone species), the phenomenon (crime)

The milestone of positivist criminology is ” L’uomo Deliquente “, from 1876, by Lombroso, highlighting the figure of the born criminal, highlighting the criminal condition of the criminal, which is immediately identified by defects or physical deficiencies.

Bringing a different point of view to the two conflicting currents of criminology , we have the emergence of a third school in the criminological area, the so-called ” Sociological School “, which emerged at the end of the 19th century.

In it, emphasis was placed on the social conditions of the criminal , crucial to his education. Factors such as life in ghettos, true generators of subcultures alien to the values ​​of formal society, or low educational level, or even precarious economic conditions, and even high alcohol consumption were the ideal fuse to model the criminal.

Currently, discussions on criminology hover under the biopsychosocial conditions of the criminal, involving some of the three schools.

In this phase, criminology approaches endocrinology , associating the production of the hormone testosterone with aggressive behavior, combining it with disorders of urban violence, as well as social and economic difficulties.

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