Meaning of Community Climax
The process in which simple communities are replaced by more complex populations is called the climax community .
When a community stabilizes and manages to start the reproduction process, that community will adapt momentarily, reaching climax, that is, it will evolve to survive .
These processes are usually slow and work gradually. Before reaching the culminating moment, the species passes through two other stages, Ecese and Sere.
They are the first organisms that settle in the environment, they can be insects, mosses and grasses. There is no pattern, each environment will be colonized in a different way.
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At this stage, the environment will undergo major changes, the environment and species will change their characteristics.
- Example: An area that was once planted with grasses will fill with shrubby vegetation, and birds that have not visited the grasses before will begin to frequent the new environment, taking advantage of this new , taller and more attractive vegetation, they will do so frequently, until let them settle
Then we finally reach the climax , a time when the environment will have a large number of species and ecological niches, the environment will be in balance.
The ecological succession process can be carried out in two ways, one primary and one secondary.
It is characterized by the time pioneer organisms colonize a given area, which has never been colonized at any other time.
Whether these organisms are seeds, insects, mammals, it makes no difference, as long as they are the first to arrive, they will be colonizing the area.
It is characterized by being a region where there was life before, but for some reason it suffered a sudden change, being a natural or anthropic act , it is an area that has modified or degenerated its entire region.
So, just like in primary succession, the species will colonize the environment.
There are some theories that try to explain the reasons involved in the process of evolution of the species, so that they can reach the culminating moment. Some of them will follow.
- Monoclimax: This theory believed in a standard climax community, determined by the climatic characteristics of the region. The theory even said that the different species were nothing more than different stages of this standard climax community.
- Polyclimax: This theory, unlike the first, recognized and believed in various types of vegetation as climax communities.
- Environmental gradient: This theory believes in defined climatic patterns in homogeneous regions, where different climax communities will interact, according to environmental gradients and conditions.
Emphasizing that these theories are old , they were elaborated around 50 and even 100 years ago.
Some researchers still believe that disclimax exists , which is a category before climax, which is a very problematic stage, where there are many disorders, so it is considered difficult to adapt by species.
Even with the problems, the species cannot continue with the evolutionary processes . In this specific case, a large part of the accused problems come from anthropic actions.