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What is Centrosome?

Meaning of Centrosome

The centrosome or cell center is the place where the microtubules of the cytoskeleton start , it is the organizing center near the nucleus.

It consists of two compact cylindrical structures that are known as centrifuges and the surrounding material in animal cells. It plays an important role in the process of cell division, regulating the nucleation and spatial organization of microtubules.

The first time this structure was described was in 1888, by Theodor Boveri.

The centrosome is located in the center of the cell, near the nucleus, and helps in the internal organization and functioning of the cell.
For the centrosome to be in the correct position, a network of radially polarized microtubules is needed in the cytoplasm.

For this organization to occur, there are proteins with a structural function that will act in the physical connection of the centrosome with the nucleus. This location of the central chromosome in the cell also interferes with the location of organelles, such as the Golgi Complex, which is mostly located in the center of the cell, next to the nucleus and centrosome.

Due to its nucleating and organizing function of microtubes, the centrosome helps to regulate cell adhesion during interphase (it is the period of the cell cycle in which the cell increases its volume, size and number of organelles), facilitating the organization of the spindles. mitotic during mitosis.

Function

The centrosome plays a key role in maintaining cell polarity, as it is involved in maintaining cytoskeleton asymmetry during cell migration. The centrosome is also involved in the final phase of cell division, where the mother centriole will move to separate the two cells.

Three different classes of centosomal proteins can be mentioned: the anchoring proteins that form an interface between microtubule nucleating proteins and regulatory molecules, the proteins that participate in microtubule nucleation, such as ?-tubulin, and the proteins that maintain the structure of the centrosome and that are responsible for supporting the association of other centosomal proteins.

For growth in cell number to occur, the cell cycle must occur, in which a sequence of events will lead to cell division.

These divisions occur in the DNA and the centrosome that are duplicated once in each cell cycle.

Centrosome duplication occurs in four different stages: G1 Phase, S Phase, G2 Phase, and the beginning of mitosis. Newly formed centrioles are composed of a parent centriole and a daughter centriole.

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