Meaning of Anarchocommunism
Anarcho-communism, also known as libertarian communism , is a theory of anarchism that adopts communist principles for the construction of the idea of an ideal society.
For anarcho-communists, social classes and the state should be abolished and there should be no private ownership of the means of production. People have free initiative production is organized by a federation of workers.
In communist anarchism , the fruits of labor must be divided according to the needs of the individual and not according to the work done.
Origin of Anarchocommunism
Anarchists opposed the conception of communism proposed by Karl Marx, because they believed that it was a statist and authoritarian model , which would take ownership of the means of production in the hands of the state.
The anarchists advocated the end of the state , but part of these militants were not satisfied with the collectivist model of anarchism, which advocated the division of the fruits of labor according to the effort made by the worker.
For them, it was not possible to establish criteria to measure the productivity of each job and the wage difference between workers would cause social inequalities.
In 1876 anarcho-communism was introduced to the International Workers’ Association by Carlo Cafiero and Errico Malatesta . This new current of anarchism had as its main difference from the collectivist anarchists the idea of the distribution of the fruits of labor.
From the 1880s, most European anarchists adopted communist anarchism and one of the most important defenders of this idea was the Russian Pyotr Kropotkin.
Kroptkin argued that cooperation was more beneficial than competition and that relationships should be based on mutual aid. The thinker was against the liberal idea of individualism , which, according to him, would make society a war of all against all.
Anarcho-communism is a union of ideals of communism and anarchism . Anarchist communists believed that communism was authoritarian and maintained a relationship of exploited class and exploiting class by giving the state a monopoly on the means of production.
However, they also disagreed with the early anarchists, called collectivists . The collectivists argued that the fruits of labor should be distributed according to the work done.
For this new aspect of anarchism, this would generate a wage gap and, as a result, social inequality.
For anarcho-communists, men are equal by nature and inequalities are produced by the way society is organized, especially due to the existence of private property.
They advocated a just society based on cooperation and a distribution of the fruits of labor aimed at the welfare of the community.
For the anarcho-communists, all the knowledge and progress achieved by the human being were the result of collective constructions and, therefore, all the benefits of these advances must be enjoyed by all.
Objectives of Anarchocommunism
Anarcho-communism intended to make a social revolution and had among its objectives:
- Abolish government, laws and all political privileges
- End of private property and social classes
- Production would be organized according to professional interests and with free agreement between the federations
- Work would be limited to the productive forces and consumption to the needs of each individual
- Free access to culture, school, art and science
- Abolition of class rule