Meaning of Agroecology
Agroecology is the study of agriculture from an ecological perspective , with the aim of making agricultural economic activity feasible while preserving the environment.
We know that there is currently a growing concern about the socio- environmental impacts of the various economic activities in the city and in the countryside.
We also call agroecology the practices derived from such studies, with the aim of cultivating and managing sustainably.
The importance of agroecology is fundamental in agriculture due to the various benefits it provides.
It improves both the quality of life , of food, sustainability, the valorization of rural workers, the traceability of products and the preservation of the environment .
In addition to all this, for family farmers , it is an important economic income.
Objectives of Agroecology
One of the objectives of agroecology is to seek alternatives to the cultivation of transgenic vegetables. Especially considering that GMOs cause serious risks to biodiversity.
Its seeds are more resistant than the others and therefore end up occupying the space of traditional landraces .
Although many do not know the term agroecology , everyone has heard of organic agriculture . This is the flagship of agroecology, as well as crops in transition to the organic farming model.
In the organic management of plantations, the use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers that can cause damage to the environment (pollution of the soil and water tables), as well as to human health, is avoided.
Instead, natural alternatives are sought , such as the use of plants and animals that expel or destroy crop pests, avoiding losses.
In addition to the issue of food sovereignty , taking into account that GMOs have royalties that must be paid to the multinationals that developed them.
This problem is denounced in the famous documentary ” The World According to Monsanto “.
One of the main concerns of organic farmers today is how to reduce costs and increase productivity without going back to normal farming.
Although it is already possible to identify organic products in large supermarket chains, they generally cost much more than conventional vegetables.
Benefits of Agroecology
Agroecology is not limited to sustainable and organic agriculture, there is also a concern with livestock with a reduction in environmental damage and also an improvement in animal welfare.
Among the best known types of sustainable livestock are the creation of the so-called “ green ox ” and that of the “ organic ox ”.
The idea of organic livestock is criticized by animal rights activists , who believe that the harm reductions are too small and animal welfare is unsatisfactory.
Similarly, some researchers criticize that environmental concerns are sometimes distanced from scientific research.
These are based more on an ethical-political discourse , therefore, it is important to have a solid scientific basis to properly address environmental problems.